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Staten Island: An Economic Review

October 2000

 

 H. Carl McCall

State Comptroller

   

Office of the State Deputy Comptroller for the City of New York

Report 4-2001

 

 


 

Contents

I. Executive Summary

II. A Brief History of Staten Island

III. An Economic Perspective on Staten Island

IV. Economic Development in Staten Island

Appendix A - Population and Migration by Borough

Appendix B - Population by Age Group

Appendix C - Private Sector Employment by Borough

Appendix D - Labor Force by Place of Residence

Appendix E - Staten Island Employment and Wages for 1998

Appendix F - Average Salaries for 1998

Appendix G - Average Salaries for Jobs Lost or Gained in the Private Sector in 1998

Appendix H - Personal Income by Borough

Appendix I - Public Assistance in New York City

Appendix J - Reported Crime in New York City

Appendix K - Economic Development Resources

 


 

I. Executive Summary

Staten Island's economy reflects its reputation as a suburban enclave within New York City, with jobs concentrated in activities that provide goods and services to the area's residents. Its cultural and natural amenities, low crime rate, and lawn-studded neighborhoods have contributed to the borough's steady population growth, even when the other boroughs were experiencing population declines. In turn, population growth has helped to further fuel the local economy.

The pace of employment growth on Staten Island has been the strongest in the City throughout the 1990s, especially in the services and trade industries that serve the local residential market. Employment growth was especially strong in the first half of 1999, the most recent period for which data are available, when the borough added 3,600 jobs, a 4.5 percent gain in employment, surpassing the full years of 1998 (2,500 jobs), 1997 (2,300 jobs) and 1996 (1,200 jobs). For the first half of 1999, Staten Island led the rest of the New York City boroughs in the rate of job growth, posting a 4.5 percent gain in employment.

About three-quarters of total employment on Staten Island is concentrated in two major industries. Services account for about 50 percent of all employment, with trade accounting for another quarter of the borough's jobs.

Not only do these two sectors dominate Staten Island's economy, but they are both growing more rapidly than these sectors are elsewhere in the City. Since the end of the recession in 1992, services have grown by 28 percent and trade has grown by nearly 13 percent on Staten Island. In comparison, Manhattan experienced the largest percentage growth in services and trade of the other boroughs, adding 22 percent to its services job base and 8 percent to its trade job base.

The number of Staten Island residents with jobs has been growing steadily since 1996, when the City shook off lingering doldrums from the recession of the early 1990s. By the beginning of 2000, the number of Staten Island residents with jobs was at the highest point since collection of the current statistics began in 1978. As employment has increased, unemployment has fallen to 5.5 percent in early 2000. Declining unemployment marks an improvement from the high rates seen earlier in the 1990s. However, as is the case in the other boroughs, it is still considerably higher than it was at the end of the 1980s boom, when Staten Island's unemployment rate averaged 4.0 percent.

Job growth in the borough is reflected in several different measures of income. Growth in total annual wages paid, defined as the amount paid to all employees in all industries located on Staten Island, accelerated from 5.7 percent in 1997 to 9.7 percent in 1998, the highest rate of growth since the mid-1980s. Only Manhattan had a higher rate of wage growth in 1998. Personal income, which includes wages of residents plus income from partnerships and proprietorships, dividends, interest and rent, and transfer payments, grew more rapidly in Staten Island than in all the other boroughs in 1997 and exceeded growth in the Bronx and Brooklyn in 1998.

Because the job mix leans heavily toward the lower-paid trade and service sectors, Staten Island reported an average salary of $30,158 in 1998, less than any other borough but Brooklyn. However, Staten Island's per capita personal income exceeded that of Brooklyn, Queens, or the Bronx, as the higher wages of Staten Island residents who commute helped boost that component of personal income.

A more favorable mix of jobs added to the Staten Island economy in 1998 led to robust growth in average salaries of 6.4 percent in that year. This was the fastest pace of growth since the early 1980s, exceeding the growth in all other boroughs except Manhattan.

After adjusting for inflation, the borough's average salary has grown by 4.8 percent since the end of the recession in 1992. Although this is a relatively modest increase in income, it is a better performance than that recorded by all the other boroughs except Manhattan. In fact, 1998 marks the first year since the end of the recession that all the boroughs outside of Manhattan enjoyed significant inflation-adjusted average wage gains.

Residential real property on Staten Island is unique in New York City because of the borough's large number of single family homes. With the number of single family homes on Staten Island representing almost 50 percent of its total residential units, Staten Island is similar to the nearby suburbs, where the share of single family homes ranges from 44 percent in Westchester to 77 percent in Suffolk.

The market for single family homes on Staten Island is healthy, with average market values rising 7 percent from City fiscal years 1997 to 2000. Market values surged another 12 percent in fiscal year 2001.

The composition of jobs and residential real estate are not the only factors to distinguish Staten Island from the rest of New York City: the borough is also characterized by low rates of poverty, public assistance caseloads, and crime. In 1995, the most recent year for which official data are available, Staten Island had the lowest poverty rate among the five boroughs, with 9.2 percent of its residents falling below the poverty line.

Between fiscal years 1994 and 1999, 9,000 people left the public assistance rolls in Staten Island, a decline of 38 percent. The remaining 15,000 people receiving public benefits at the end of 1999 account for just 2.2 percent of the City's welfare recipients. Welfare clients represented less than 4 percent of the population on Staten Island, the lowest concentration among all the boroughs.

From 1990 to 1998, reported crimes in New York City dropped by nearly 55 percent, but fell by over 58 percent in Staten Island. During the first six months of 1999, crime continued to decline more rapidly in Staten Island than it did Citywide, with reported crimes falling by 10.4 percent compared to a 7.7 percent decline in the Citywide average.

A number of economic development initiatives are underway to help Staten Island capitalize on its resources. The New York City Economic Development Corporation (EDC) and the Staten Island Economic Development Corporation (SIEDC) have designated an area of St. George to be the Staten Island High-End Urban Bandwidth as part of the City's expanded Plug 'n' Go program, now dubbed "Digital NYC." The Digital NYC program seeks to provide low-cost, internet-ready office space for high-tech tenants, incentives which will be enhanced on Staten Island by the area's inclusion in the State-designated North Shore Economic Development Zone.

St. George is the entry point to Staten Island from Manhattan and the seat of borough government. The Staten Island Ferry Terminal is currently undergoing an $80 million reconstruction, which will include a reconfiguration of walkway and roadway access, new retail and restaurant space, and a waterfront plaza. Nearby will be the new home of the Staten Island Yankees, a Single-A minor league affiliate of the New York Yankees. In addition, a master economic development plan is being developed by SIEDC for Bay Street, the main commercial artery connecting the ferry terminal with the Verrazano-Narrows Bridge.

Adjacent to Bay Street is the former Navy Homeport facility. This facility has been vacant for several years, and the City's EDC has contracted with an architectural firm to determine actions that could make the site more marketable.

Other economic development resources include Howland Hook marine terminal, leased by the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey (PA) from New York City, and the Teleport, which is a joint project of New York City, the PA, and the Teleport Communications Groups. Both of these facilities are planning expansions.

Adjacent to the Howland Hook marine terminal is a 15-acre former Department of Transportation site in Mariners Harbor now owned by EDC, for which SIEDC has proposed an industrial park targeted to manufacturing firms.

Along the West Shore Expressway lies the 415-acre Staten Island Corporate Park, much of which is wetlands, that includes the Teleport and 3 new class A office buildings. EDC helped create the site in the early 1970s. Currently, a 150 room Hilton Hotel is under development, with an opening date expected in the summer of 2001. The Staten Island Corporate Park also lies within the economic development zone, providing its tenants with additional benefits.



The first European to see Staten Island was Giovanni da Verrazano, who sailed into New York Harbor in 1524 in quest of a short route to the Far East. The Dutch established a permanent settlement near South Beach in 1661 and named it "Staten Eylandt," referring to the governing body of the Netherlands called the "Estate General." In 1664, Staten Island became part of the province of New York when the Dutch surrendered their settlements to the British. In 1683, when the British reorganized their American colonies, Staten Island and Shooter's Island became the county of Richmond.

The economy of Staten Island originally revolved around the agrarian and maritime sectors. When agriculture peaked in the late 1800s, there were over 300 farms on Staten Island producing corn, oats, wheat, and potatoes, and providing this produce to Manhattan and Jersey City. Today, there is only one commercial farm left on the island. Oysters also played a major role in Staten Island's economy, but by 1800 the original oyster beds had been depleted. Oystermen seeded them with oysters from Virginia and neighboring waters, the industry recovered, and output reached 200,000 bushels per year by 1900, with distribution reaching as far west as the Rocky Mountains. The industry again fell into decline following a typhoid fever scare, and ceased to exist during World War II.

A period of intense development on the Island began in the 1800s as manufacturing businesses started to grow and transportation needs became more important. Factoryville (later renamed West New Brighton) was the first major manufacturing center on Staten Island. It opened in 1819 and combined a facility for the N.Y. Dyeing and Printing Company with housing for its workers. Elsewhere in the borough, the S.S. White Dental Manufacturing Co. established the "Factory by the Sea," which, by 1890, was one of the largest industrial employers on the Island. Ice companies were also part of the Island's economic base before the advent of refrigeration, while breweries could be found in Stapleton, Clifton, and Castleton Corners. The Windsor Plaster Mill (later part of U.S. Gypsum) was started in 1876 in New Brighton. Shipyards operated in Tottenville and on Shooter's Island. In 1907 the Procter and Gamble Company established their third manufacturing plant on a 77-acre site near Howland Hook, called Port Ivory, named for the company's most famous product - Ivory Soap.

Several medical and charitable institutions founded homes in the rural atmosphere of the island. Sailor's Snug Harbor was established in 1833 "for the purpose of maintaining and supporting aged, decrepit and worn out sailors." The hospital was torn down in the 1960s, but the grounds are now part of the Snug Harbor Cultural Center. In Pleasant Plains, Mt. Loretto was founded as a place for homeless newsboys in order to counter the trend of sending homeless children to the Midwest. The U.S. Marine Hospital was founded in Stapleton in 1831 as "The Seaman's Retreat": it is now the Bayley-Seton Hospital. In 1938, a site in Willowbrook was acquired for the Department of Mental Hygiene, which became Halloran Hospital during World War II, the largest facility in the nation for treating injured soldiers. After the war, it again became a mental health facility, until scandals forced its closure in the 1970s. The site became the campus for the CUNY College of Staten Island in 1989.

Like the rest of New York City, Staten Island attracted many immigrants. The Irish were employed in Factoryville and settled in the North Shore. The Italians came to Rosebank, South Beach and later to Port Richmond, while a large German group settled in Stapleton. Many of the original oystermen were African-Americans who came from Maryland and settled in Tompkinsville, West Brighton and Sandy Ground. Sandy Ground, originally known as Harrisville and Little Africa, was established as the first free black community in New York.

Transportation was a major concern if Staten Island were to play a part in the activities of the surrounding region. Daniel Tompkins promoted the development of Tompkinsville and a system of transportation that linked ferry, turnpike and stagecoach services, and established the first ferry connection to Manhattan in 1817. His company built what is now Victory Boulevard, a major Staten Island artery. Staten Island also provided the start for Cornelius Vanderbilt, who was born there in 1794 and grew up on his father's farm. As a youth he fell in love with the sea, and, with the help of family and friends, established a passenger and freight service between Manhattan and Staten Island. He built a fleet of vessels, added a railroad line to his portfolio, and eventually became a railroad baron with a fortune in excess of $100 million by the time of his death in 1877.

In 1898, the territories comprising current day Manhattan, the Bronx, Brooklyn, Queens, and Staten Island were combined to become the largest City in the world after London. George Cromwell became Staten Island's first borough president, and Borough Hall was erected in St. George.

Despite its borough status, Staten Island's best transportation connections for decades were to New Jersey rather than the rest of New York City. In 1928 the Goethals Bridge from Howland Hook to Elizabeth, NJ and the Outerbridge Crossing from Tottenville to Perth Amboy, NJ, both crossing over the Arthur Kill, were completed. The Bayonne Bridge followed them in 1931, crossing the Kill Van Kull to connect Port Richmond with Bayonne. It was not until 1964 that the Verrazano Narrows Bridge was completed, connecting the borough to Brooklyn. This bridge, along with the ferry connecting St. George to Lower Manhattan and other improvements to roadways and public transportation, helped speed the conversion of Staten Island from a rural to a suburban community. Staten Island now consists of tightly packed residential neighborhoods amid the rambling greenery.

Staten Island contains one-fifth of the City's shoreline, with almost half of the Island's waterfront zoned for industrial use -- a very large proportion compared to the other boroughs. Staten Island's waterfront is also home to the City's last operating landfill, the 3,000 acre Fresh Kills site, which is the largest such facility in the world. The landfill is to be closed in 2001.

In addition to industrial uses of the waterfront, there are about 4,000 acres of parks on the waterfront, for both recreation and preservation of natural resources. Six of the City's 15 state-designated "Significant Coastal Fish and Wildlife Habitats" are on Staten Island, including tidal marshes, creeks, ponds, estuaries, and freshwater wetlands. Almost 7,000 acres, or nearly 18 percent of Staten Island, is parkland, the second-highest park density in the City.

 

Staten Island is New York City's most residential borough, more closely resembling the surrounding suburbs than it does the other boroughs. The draw of lawns and low population density has allowed Staten Island to consistently attract population and grow while other parts of the City have seen their population levels fluctuate. Population growth has supported the borough's employment growth, which has been the strongest in the City throughout the 1990s, especially in the services and trade industries that serve the local residential market. Employment growth was especially strong in the first half of 1999, the most recent period for which data are available, when the borough added 3,600 jobs, a 4.5 percent gain in employment.

Average salaries on Staten Island tend to be lower than elsewhere in the City. This is partly because of the borough's high concentration of service and trade jobs, but also because most industries on Staten Island pay lower salaries on average than do the same industries in the other boroughs. However, a large proportion of workers who commute out of the borough to higher-paying jobs helps to place Staten Island's per capita personal income level mid-way among incomes of the five boroughs. Despite the lower level of average salaries, wage growth on Staten Island in 1998 was the strongest of the boroughs outside of Manhattan. In the first half of 1999, a drop in securities bonuses in Manhattan allowed Staten Island to rank first among the boroughs in the growth of total wages.

Staten Island Population Boasts Steady Increases

Although Staten Island is the least populated borough, with 413,000 residents, it never experienced the population declines that so affected the rest of the City in recent decades (see Figure 1). Between 1970 and 1980 population declined by 880,510 in all of the other four boroughs, a decline of almost 12 percent, while Staten Island's population grew by over 19 percent, or 56,586 people. Since 1980, Staten Island has gained another 61,000 residents.

During the 1990s, Staten Island's population increase resulted from several factors (see Appendix A). First, the number of births was greater than the number of deaths. Second, as the number of departures outnumbered new arrivals from elsewhere in the nation in the four other boroughs in every year between 1990 and 1999, Staten Island saw more people moving in than moving out for half of those years. In addition, although the number of international immigrants is small in comparison with the other boroughs, Staten Island is the only borough whose level of international in-migration in 1999 was greater than in 1991.

 

 

Staten Island also differs from the rest of the City in terms of population changes within age groups. Between 1990 and 1998, while the four other boroughs saw declines in their population aged 25 to 44, Staten Island's population in this age group grew by 2.7 percent (see Appendix B). During the same time period, the other boroughs also lost population aged 65 to 85, while the number of Staten Island residents in this age group increased by 12.6 percent.

Of all the boroughs, Staten Island is the least diverse in terms of racial and ethnic composition. In 1998, 7 percent of its residents were Asian, 9 percent were African-Americans, and 10 percent were Hispanic, who can be of any race. Between 1990 and 1998, however, the African-American population grew by 15 percent, the Hispanic population by 33 percent, and the Asian population by 57 percent.

Services and Trade Dominate Staten Island's Economy

The number of jobs located on Staten Island is small relative to the other boroughs in the City, accounting for about 2.6 percent of all private sector jobs in the City. Nonetheless, its economy has been undergoing a transformation similar to the economy in the rest of the City and the nation, as manufacturing has given way to a service-based economy. This shift, while producing many new jobs in industries ranging from new media to home health care, has also eliminated jobs in many traditional industries, where pay and benefits were often better than in the new jobs in services and trade.

In 1998, the most recent period for which annual data are available, three-quarters of all employment on Staten Island was concentrated in just two major industries: trade and services (see Figure 2). That these industries are so prominent in Staten Island is a reflection of the highly residential character of the borough. Although there is some manufacturing and finance, much of Staten Island's economy is geared toward local market industries that serve the needs of its residents.

Nearly half of Staten Island's jobs are in services, a larger share than any other borough except the Bronx. Since the end of the recession in 1992, employment in this sector has increased by over 28 percent, a much faster rate of growth than in the other boroughs (Manhattan had the next fastest rate of service growth, with a gain of nearly 22 percent).

 

Text Box: Figure 2
Private Sector Job Concentration in 1998
By Borough
(percent distribution)

                               Industry	         Bronx	      Brooklyn	     Manhattan	         Queens	Staten Island
Manufacturing	 6.8	 12.1	 8.0	 11.6	 3.1
Construction	 5.2	 5.1	 1.7	 7.8	 7.0
Transportation	 5.1	 6.7	 4.9	 16.2	 8.2
Trade:	 22.6	 23.5	 17.7	 22.7	 26.2
    Wholesale	6.3	7.1	6.2	6.2	2.4
    Retail	16.3	16.4	11.5	15.6	23.8
Finance, Ins., Real Estate	 6.7	 6.7	 22.7	 5.8	 5.5
Services:	 53.1	 44.9	 44.7	 35.4	 48.9
    Hotels	 0.2	 0.1	 1.8	 0.5	 0.1
    Personal Services	 1.3	 1.5	 0.7	 1.4	 2.6
    Business Services	 2.9	 3.8	 12.5	 5.5	 4.3
    Auto Repair	 1.2	 1.0	 0.5	 1.3	 1.0
    Motion Pictures	 0.3	 0.3	 1.8	 0.3	 0.5
    Amusements	 0.6	 0.6	 1.9	 0.9	 1.1
    Health Services	 25.4	 17.3	 6.8	 13.3	 24.8
    Legal Services	 0.5	 0.7	 3.7	 0.5	 1.1
    Education Service	 6.5	 3.9	 3.8	 2.4	 3.6
    Social Services	 11.4	 12.4	 3.2	 6.0	 5.9
    Eng., Acct., & Mgt.	 0.7	 1.3	 5.2	 1.1	 2.3
    Other	 2.3	 2.3	 2.7	 2.2	 1.8
Other, Private	 0.5	 0.9	 0.4	 0.6	 1.1
					
Note: Columns may not total 100 because of rounding.
      Data Source: NYS Department of Labor, ES202 Insured Employment Series

However, there is much variation in the nature of service sector jobs. Like the overall economy, the service sector can be broadly divided into businesses that sell to local markets and those that are export-oriented. The export sector generally consists of industries that sell goods and services outside the region, and jobs in these industries tend to be higher-paying than those in industries that serve primarily local markets. The service component of the export sector usually comprises hotels; business services, such as computer programming or advertising; professional services; and engineering, accounting, and management consulting.

On Staten Island, very few service sector jobs are in these export-oriented areas. Rather, most serve the needs of local residents in such areas as health, education, social, and personal services. In fact, health care accounts for over half of all service jobs in the borough, primarily in doctors' offices, nursing and personal care facilities, and hospitals. Although health care is the largest component of services in all the boroughs except Manhattan, Staten Island has proportionally more of its service jobs in this area than any other borough. Even in pursuits that can often be considered export-oriented, such as business services, the jobs are primarily in areas - such as services to buildings and detectives and armored car services - that tend to meet local needs.

Trade is the other major employer in Staten Island, accounting for over one-quarter of all jobs, a concentration higher than in any other borough. As is the case with services, trade employment has also increased faster in Staten Island since the recession (12.8 percent) than it has in the other boroughs, where growth for this period ranged from 5.6 percent in Queens to 8 percent in Manhattan. However, because there is very little wholesale trade activity on Staten Island compared to the rest of the City, trade consists almost entirely of retail jobs. Staten Island has more than twice the share of jobs in retail trade than Manhattan.

The shares of employment in both construction and the transportation, communications, and public utilities (TCPU) sector has actually increased in recent years. Only Queens has a larger concentration of jobs in construction. Likewise, only Queens has a greater concentration of TCPU employment. The high share of TCPU jobs reflects each borough's unique transportation assets - the airports in Queens, and the port facilities in Staten Island.

Staten Island's economy has very little employment in areas traditionally considered export-oriented. Only 3 percent of Staten Island's employment is in manufacturing, less than half the share of the Bronx and one-quarter that of Brooklyn or Queens. Fewer than 2,400 manufacturing jobs remain on Staten Island, primarily in transportation equipment, apparel, paper products, printing and publishing, and chemical products. Although Staten Island is the only borough to show a net gain in manufacturing employment since the end of the 1990s recession, this sector is still only half the size it was two decades ago.

There is also very little finance sector employment on Staten Island, accounting for only about 5.5 percent of the employment base, the smallest share of this sector among all the boroughs. Just over half the finance employment on Staten Island is in banking, which consists primarily of retail bank branches.

While most TCPU jobs citywide are in communications, public utilities, and bus and train service - areas that target mainly local markets, the jobs in Staten Island's port facilities could be considered export oriented. However, the 1,200 water transportation jobs (primarily in freight transportation, cargo handling, towing, tugboats, and other ship's services) represented 1.5 percent of the borough's economy in 1998.

 

Employment Gains in First Half of 1999 are Far Ahead of Previous Three Years

During the first half of 1999 (the most recent period for which data are available), over 3,600 jobs were added to the Staten Island economy, far more than for the full years of 1998 (2,500 jobs), 1997 (2,300 jobs) and 1996 (1,200 jobs). For the first half of 1999, Staten Island led the rest of the New York City boroughs in the rate of job growth, posting a 4.5 percent gain in employment. [1]

Increased employment in the service sector (1,300 jobs) accounted for more than one-third of the total jobs gained from the first half of 1998 to the first six months of 1999 (see Figure 3). About half of the new service sector jobs (670) were in health services, particularly in medical doctors' offices and hospitals. Business services also grew robustly, adding over 500 jobs, while employment in social services increased by over 300 jobs. Countering this growth was a decline of 460 jobs in personal services.

 

The construction industry added 1,000 jobs as rising incomes and a strong local real estate market spurred both the building of new structures and renovations of existing properties. Rising incomes also generated increased sales activity, causing retail trade to gain 700 jobs, primarily in restaurants and furniture stores. The transportation sector added almost 600 jobs, many in water transport (i.e., port facilities), and in local and suburban transport. Government employment was essentially flat (30 jobs added) with small gains in Federal and State government offset by losses in local government.

Manufacturing lost 240 jobs, with most of the losses occurring in the production of nondurable goods. In the FIRE sector, job losses due to the continuing consolidation of the banking industry were partly offset by increased employment in the real estate industry.

 

Unemployment Rate Continues to Fall but Still Stands Above Record Lows

Staten Island's unemployment rate, which is the ratio of the number of people unemployed to the number of people working or looking for work, averaged 5.5 percent for the first three months of 2000. The unemployment rate has fallen in recent years as the local economy prospered. However, as is true of the other boroughs, it is still considerably higher than it was at the end of the 1980s boom, when Staten Island's unemployment rate averaged 4.0 percent. Unemployment rates vary among the boroughs, with rates considerably higher in Brooklyn and the Bronx compared with the three other boroughs (see Figure 4 and Appendix D). During the first three months of 2000, Manhattan had the lowest unemployment rate in the city (5.3 percent).

 

By contrast, with the national economic expansion now setting new records for duration, the national unemployment rate has dipped below 4 percent in recent months with the lowest unemployment rate in 30 years recorded in April 2000. The unemployment rate for New York State, although about one point higher than the nation's, has now dropped below 5 percent. Locally, the overall unemployment rate in New York City, while following the downward national and state trends, is still running over one percentage point higher than the statewide average.

 

Number of Employed Staten Islanders Reaches Peak as the Labor Force Swells

Employment levels among Staten Island's residents did not begin to recover significantly from the early 1990s recession until 1996, but they have been growing steadily ever since. By the beginning of 2000, the number of Staten Island residents with jobs had reached its highest point since collection of the current statistics began in 1978.

In general, labor force trends on Staten Island in recent years have paralleled those occurring throughout the rest of the City. During the first half of the 1990s, the size of the active labor force, which includes those working plus the officially unemployed, declined slightly on Staten Island, with the number of persons in the labor force lower in 1995 than in 1990. However, in 1996 the size of the labor force jumped 3.7 percent, followed by a gain of 4.3 percent in 1997.

These sudden leaps in labor force levels were primarily due to changes in welfare laws that resulted in a significant expansion of the pool of individuals seeking employment. This pool expanded faster than the number of jobs available, so the number of people unemployed and the unemployment rate both rose in 1996 and 1997. In subsequent years, the impact of welfare changes diminished as people found jobs or again dropped out of the labor force, and unemployment rates began to decline, falling from 8.3 percent in 1997 to 5.5 percent so far in 2000. Staten Island's labor force actually declined slightly in 1999, although growth has resumed in 2000.

 

High Total Wage Growth in 1998 Yields to Smaller Gains in 1999

Total annual wages paid, defined as the amount paid to all employees in all industries, grew in Staten Island by 9.7 percent during 1998, a significant increase over the 5.7 percent gain in 1997 and the highest rate of growth since the mid-1980s. Only Manhattan had a higher rate of wage growth in 1998 (see Figure 5). The gain in Staten Island was driven both by strong employment growth and by significant increases in average salaries. This was true in the construction, transportation, communications and public utilities, finance, and services sectors, each of which had a double-digit increase in wages (see Appendix E). Wages paid in manufacturing declined, as did employment in this sector.

Staten Island wage growth slowed to 6.3 percent in the first half of 1999, when compared to the same period one year earlier. The slowdown was due to a larger decline in manufacturing, a drop in banking wages, and sharply lower wage growth in personal, health, and legal services. Because of a Citywide slowdown in wage growth that especially affected Manhattan, Staten Island had the highest wage growth of the five boroughs in the first half of 1999. Manhattan suffered because securities industry year-end bonus payments for 1998, much of which were paid in the first quarter of 1999, were smaller than in the previous year. However, as 1999 saw continued strong employment gains throughout the City's economy, we expect data to reflect strengthening wage growth in all the boroughs in the latter half of 1999 and the first half of 2000. Continued strong gains in Citywide personal income tax collections, despite recent tax cuts, support this forecast.

 

Since the end of the recession in 1992, inflation-adjusted wages have risen at an average annual rate of 4 percent on Staten Island, a larger increase than occurred in every other borough including Manhattan. However, because of Staten Island's small size relative to the rest of the City, the borough's real wage increase accounted for only 1.7 percent of the Citywide inflation-adjusted total wage gain in those years.

Average Salary Growth Significantly Higher in 1998, Yielding Real Income Gains

The job mix on Staten Island, leaning heavily toward the trade and service sectors, gives this borough an average salary of $30,158 in 1998, significantly less than that of Manhattan ($62,970) but also less than those of Queens ($32,564) and the Bronx ($31,131) (see Appendix F). Staten Island's reliance on lower-paid trade jobs pulls down the overall average salary on the island. Nonetheless, the average salary on Staten Island grew by 6.4 percent in 1998, the fastest rate of growth since the early 1980s and significantly faster than the pace of growth in recent years. This gain was equal to the rate of increase in Manhattan and was higher than that experienced in the other boroughs.

The rapid increase in average salaries was a result of the relatively favorable mix of jobs being added to the Staten Island economy. The average salary for these new jobs - concentrated in services, construction, and trade - was higher than the average in the industries that lost jobs, and was higher than the average for all private sector jobs. In addition, year-to-year pay increases in these industries were strong. Even so, the average salary of new jobs on Staten Island falls below most of the other boroughs, where recent trends in the mix of new jobs have also been favorable (see Appendix G)

Since the end of the recession in 1992, inflation-adjusted average salaries have increased 4.8 percent in Staten Island, with nearly all of that gain coming in 1998 alone. Although this is a relatively modest increase in real income, it is a better performance than that recorded by all the other boroughs except Manhattan. In fact, 1998 marks the first year since the end of the recession where jobs in Staten Island, Brooklyn, Queens, and the Bronx all enjoyed significant inflation-adjusted wage gains (see Figure 6). The average salary in Manhattan has enjoyed real gains for several years, because of the preponderance of high-paying jobs in industries such as securities.

In other boroughs, the strong performance in 1998 has not yet been sufficient to offset real wage declines in the earlier years of the recovery. Thus, average inflation-adjusted salaries are still below their 1992 levels in Brooklyn (by 1 percent), in Queens (by 1.5 percent), and in the Bronx (by 2.9 percent). Because of the strong wage growth in many of Manhattan's higher-paid industries, the average inflation-adjusted salary in this borough is now 17.3 percent higher than it was in 1992.

 

Personal Income Growth on Staten Island Performs Well

Personal income includes not only wages but also income from partnerships and proprietorships; dividends, interest, rent; and transfer payments, which consist primarily of government payments to individuals in the form of pensions, disability benefits, Medicare, welfare, veterans' benefits, and unemployment insurance benefits. Therefore, this measure of income can capture the impact of changes in many parts of the economy on households. After slowing in 1997, growth in New York City personal income picked up in 1998, the latest period for which data are available. Much of this improvement can be attributed to an increase in Manhattan's growth rate, from 3.6 percent in 1997 to 7.5 percent in 1998.

However, in 1997, personal income increased at a greater rate for Staten Island (6.1 percent) than for each of the other four boroughs (see Figure 7), and well above the Citywide rate of 3.6 percent. Although the rate of growth for personal income on Staten Island slowed in 1998, it still continued at a strong pace, increasing by 4.4 percent, a pace exceeding that for the Bronx and Brooklyn. Much of this slowdown for Staten Island can be attributed to an easing of the growth in income from dividends, interest and rent. In 1997, this volatile component of personal income increased by almost 12 percent, compared with growth of only 3.6 percent in 1998. Net earnings for Staten Island residents, which excludes transfer payments, dividends, interest and rent, continued to grow at a strong pace of 5 percent, down slightly from the 6 percent rate of increase in 1997.

In contrast, transfer payments showed an increase in the rate of growth in 1998. On Staten Island, as in the rest of the City, more than half of all transfer payments are medical payments, including Medicare and Medicaid for welfare recipients and other qualified individuals.

Shares of the components of personal income vary somewhat across the boroughs. Earnings are the dominant component in all the boroughs, but Manhattan has the largest share, at 72.7 percent of personal income in 1998, as a result of the high-paying jobs many of its residents hold. Staten Island has the highest ratio of wages to personal income among the other boroughs (64.7 percent). Despite the low average salaries paid by Staten Island firms, resident wages are boosted by the nearly 60 percent of the borough's workforce who commute to jobs elsewhere in the City, notably Manhattan.

Dividends, interest and rent make up about 12 percent of Staten Island's personal income, about the same share that it represents in Brooklyn, but a much lower share than in Queens or Manhattan. Transfer payments comprise about one-quarter of income in Staten Island and Queens. They constitute a much larger share of income in the Bronx (about 35 percent) and Brooklyn (30 percent), and a much smaller share in Manhattan (about 12 percent).

Staten Island's per capita income in 1998 ($31,187) was greater than that of Brooklyn, Queens, or the Bronx (see Appendix H). Manhattan, because of its many high-paying jobs, had the highest per capita income in the City - $72,194.

 

Cultural and Recreational Activities Abound on Staten Island

Staten Island is home to many cultural and recreational centers. One of its better-known sites is the Snug Harbor Cultural Center, which houses many cultural organizations and offers theater productions and outdoor concerts. In its park setting, it contains several museums, including the Newhouse Center of Contemporary Art; the John A. Noble Collection, a museum concentrating on the artist's maritime work; the Staten Island Children's Museum; and the Staten Island Botanical Gardens. The New York Chinese Scholar's Garden, which was built with help from China in the form of donations of labor and materials and is the only garden of its type in the United States, is housed in Staten Island's Botanical Garden.

Among the other museums located on Staten Island is the Jacques Marchais Museum of Tibetan Art, which aims to preserve Tibetan culture, but also features art from other Asian countries. The Staten Island Institute of Arts and Sciences concentrates on the art, science, and history of the borough. Staten Island also has a zoo, with a notable reptile collection.

Historical attractions are also present on Staten Island. Historic Richmond Town, the only historic village in New York City, contains buildings dating from the late 1600s to the early 1900s. People dressed in costumes of the time perform demonstrations of trades and crafts typical of the period. The Alice Austen House Museum displays photographs taken by Alice Austen (1866-1952), who lived in the house, known as "Clear Comfort", for most of her life. The Sandy Ground Historical Society is a museum and library that explores the lives of the "free blacks" who moved to the area before the Civil War.

There are many parks in the borough offering a wide range of recreational activities. Great Kills Park, part of the Gateway National Recreational Area located in both New York and New Jersey, boasts excellent birdwatching and even a chance to see monarch butterflies migrating.

Staten Island is the new home of the Staten Island Yankees, a minor league baseball team, which began playing in the borough in June. Since the team's new 6,500 seat ballpark will not be completed until the beginning of next year's season, the College of Staten Island is hosting the team this season. The ballpark is being built next to the Staten Island Ferry terminal in St. George, which is also being renovated.

 

Single Family Homes Dominate the Real Estate Market

The composition of real property on Staten Island is quite different from the other four boroughs, due to a smaller proportion of commercial real property and a high concentration of single family homes among the residential properties. Excluding utility properties, Staten Island is the only borough where commercial properties account for less than 10 percent of the market value of all real property. The market value for commercial property in Brooklyn, Queens and the Bronx averages about 14 percent of total property values, while in Manhattan, because of the large number of office properties, the value of commercial real estate is equal to 56 percent of the total.

In FY 2000, 45 percent of the value of the commercial market for Staten Island was accounted for by stores, which make up a larger percentage of the total market value of commercial properties on Staten Island than in Brooklyn, the Bronx, or Queens, the other three primarily residential boroughs (see Figure 8). The value of stores on Staten Island, and their share of total commercial market value, has been increasing markedly since the City began reporting market values in FY 1993. Through FY 2000, the value of stores on Staten Island has increased by almost 36 percent, even though the number of stores increased by only 17, from 1,394 to 1,411, during this same period. This rate of growth is far in excess of the other boroughs (Queens had the next highest growth at 26 percent).

Residential real property on Staten Island is unique in New York City because of the borough's large number of single family homes, making Staten Island more comparable to the surrounding suburbs (see Figure 9) than to any of the other four boroughs. While the number of single family homes on Staten Island represents almost 50 percent of its total residential units, of the other boroughs only Queens (at 25 percent) has a share that exceeds 10 percent. In the nearby suburbs, the share that single family homes represent out of total residential units ranges from 44 percent in Westchester to 77 percent in Suffolk.

Furthermore, condominiums and cooperative apartments are very rare on Staten Island, with a total market value that comprises only 0.6 percent of all residential properties in the borough. By comparison, Brooklyn has the next lowest concentration of condominiums and cooperative buildings, making up 4.4 percent of the total residential market value for that borough. Rental properties are also very rare on Staten Island, with a market value accounting for only 1.8 percent of the total residences. For the other four boroughs, rentals range from 8.8 percent of residential market value in Queens to 45.6 percent in Manhattan.

While the residential market in Staten Island suffered more during the recession than it did in the other residential boroughs, the market value of Staten Island's single family homes has performed the best of the other boroughs since 1993. Between 1991 and 1993, median market values for single family homes declined more on Staten Island (5.8 percent) than they declined in the Bronx (2.7 percent), Brooklyn (unchanged), or Queens (3.8 percent). However, between 1993 and 1996, Staten Island was the only borough to show an increase in the median home value, with a gain of 0.56 percent. Between fiscal years 1997 and 2000, average market values on Staten Island

Text Box: Figure 9
Distribution of Residential Properties
Number of Units in 1990

 
 

Data Source: US Bureau of the Census

rose from $175,882 to $188,008, an increase of nearly 7 percent. In addition, tentative data for FY 2001 show Staten Island home values surged significantly this year - by over 12 percent. While values rose in the other residential boroughs, Staten Island reported the largest increase.

 

Staten Island Boasts Lowest Poverty Rates in New York City

In 1995, the most recent year for which official data are available, Staten Island had the lowest poverty rate among the five boroughs, with 9.2 percent of its residents falling below the poverty line.

Poverty weighs heavily on children. People under the age of 18 years accounted for 43 percent of the 1995 poverty population in Staten Island. These children represented 15 percent of the total youth population in Staten Island, but only 2 percent of all children living in poverty in New York City in 1995. Poverty among children is greater, however, in Brooklyn and the Bronx, where nearly half of all children live in poverty.

The Community Service Society has calculated more recent poverty rates for the City using the US Census data that is used to provide the official estimates. They found that, based on data in two-year average intervals, poverty in the City had declined in 1996/1997 and 1997/1998, yet it was still higher than it was at the end of the last economic expansion in 1988/1989.

Poverty rates rose significantly City-wide from 1989 to 1993 in response to the early 1990s recession. The nation began to recover from that recession in 1991, but a slow recovery on the local level did not begin until 1992. From 1993 to 1995, the citywide poverty rate fell despite an increase in poverty in Manhattan and in Queens. While the increase in Manhattan was small, rising from 22.3 percent of the population in 1993 to 22.7 percent in 1995, the increase in Queens was larger, rising from 15.3 percent of the population in 1993 to 16.3 percent in 1995. The Bronx had the greatest share of residents in poverty-over 31 percent in 1995.

 

Public Assistance Burden Lightest on Staten Island

In fiscal years 1994 through 1999, 9,000 people left the public assistance rolls in Staten Island, a decline of 38 percent, leaving just over 15,000 people receiving public benefits at the end of this period, or 2.2 percent of the City's welfare recipients (see Figure 10). Welfare clients represented less than 4 percent of the population on Staten Island, the lowest concentration among all the boroughs. Queens has the next lowest share of its resident population receiving welfare benefits (slightly more than 4 percent), followed by Manhattan (7 percent), Brooklyn (10 percent), and the Bronx (18 percent).

 

 

The number of New York City residents receiving public assistance has fallen steadily since FY 1994 in response to an improving economy and aggressive welfare reform efforts at all levels of government. Most people on public assistance are children, primarily in single-parent households. By the end of FY 1999, the number of recipients in all programs had declined by nearly 41 percent, to 680,000 people. Across the five boroughs, the reductions varied from almost 51 percent in Manhattan to 30 percent in the Bronx (see Appendix I). The pattern of decline has continued into FY 2000: during the first four months of the fiscal year, the total number of persons receiving public assistance in New York City declined to 642,000, the lowest level in over 30 years.

 

Crime on Staten Island Drops Faster Than the City-wide Average

From 1990 to 1998, reported crimes in New York City dropped by nearly 55 percent. Reported crime in Staten Island declined even faster by over 58 percent with the number of reported incidents falling to 9,058. In both 1995 and 1998, the decline in reported crime exceeded 20 percent. Among the major categories of crime, declines in Staten Island ranged from a high of 75.1 percent for motor vehicle theft to a low of 35.7 percent for assault (see Appendix J). In general, crimes against property (burglary, larceny, and auto theft) declined more than crimes against people (murder, rape, robbery, and assault). The largest category of crime in each of the boroughs was larceny, although there were more auto thefts in Queens than in any other borough (over one-third of such crime citywide).

During the first six months of 1999, the Citywide rate of decline in crime slowed to 7.7 percent (when compared with the same period in 1998), with crimes against property and crimes against persons declining at the same rate. For Staten Island, reported crimes declined by 10.4 percent in the first half of 1999, with crimes against persons (murder, rape, robbery and assault) now declining faster than crimes against property (burglary, larceny and auto theft). However, the number of murders on Staten Island rose from 3 in the first half of 1998 to 5 in the first half of 1999. Murder, which rose in every borough but the Bronx, was the only one of the seven major crime categories that increased from the first half of 1998 to the same period in 1999. The City-wide increase in the number of murders averaged 14 percent. The biggest declines in crime on Staten Island during the first half of 1999 were in assaults (23.8 percent) and burglary (21.3 percent).

 



Although small in size, Staten Island has reported solid growth in population, employment, and incomes, while its residents enjoy declining levels of crime and poverty and have access to many of the cultural and natural amenities that constitute a good quality of life. Nonetheless, the borough also has to struggle to overcome the perception of being remote from the City, of being a "forgotten" borough, and of being the place where the City dumps its garbage. Staten Island is working to change these perceptions, and there are many opportunities for economic development on the Island, some of which will be covered in this chapter. (Appendix K provides lists of economic development resources on Staten Island.)

 

Overall Economic Development Resources

One of the main participants in the economic development process is the Staten Island Economic Development Corporation (SIEDC). SIEDC describes its mission as "promoting public and private investment, encouraging the development of industrial and commercial property, and providing broad and diverse employment opportunities." In order to accomplish these goals, the organization provides an array of direct business services, including a database of available real estate, a geographical mapping service, and below-market rate loans through the Commercial and Industrial Capital Corporation. SIEDC sponsors an annual economic development conference, and is involved in a number of economic development projects, working as developers for several sites around the borough.

SIEDC also administers the North Shore Economic Development Zone, which runs along the north shore of the Island from Pouch Terminal to Port Ivory. New York State designates certain areas as "economic development zones," within which businesses can qualify for generous tax incentives, reduced utility rates, technical training, assistance with business plans, and access to low-cost financing. The State recently increased the level of benefits available in these zones. An economic development zone has also been proposed for 700 acres along the west shore.

In an effort to encourage growth of high-tech industries in the City, the New York City Economic Development Corporation (EDC) has expanded its Plug 'n' Go program to boroughs outside Manhattan. Now called the Digital NYC program, it seeks to provide low-cost internet-ready office space for high-tech tenants. EDC also provides funding to help local economic development groups promote these new districts. On Staten Island, EDC and SIEDC have designated an area of St. George to be the Staten Island High-End Urban Bandwith (SI HUB). This area includes over 125,000 square feet at rents averaging about $15 per square foot. The SI HUB is also located in the North Shore Economic Development Zone, giving participating firms access to additional benefits.

The Federal government has designated the Howland Hook Marine Terminal and the adjacent Port Ivory site as a Foreign-Trade Zone (FTZ). FTZ's are an area within the United States which are considered to be outside the country for purposes of customs duty. Within a zone, goods may be stored, processed, assembled, or repackaged, with customs duties deferred, reduced, or eliminated, depending on the activity involved.

Another Federal government business development effort is the Historically Underutilized Business (HUB) Zones Program (not to be confused with the SI HUB). It is administered by the US Small Business Administration and was created through the Small Business Reauthorization Act of 1997. This program seeks to generate economic development through the empowerment of eligible small businesses by providing a preference system to compete for all types of federally procured contracts. These preferences provide opportunities to negotiate sole source contracts, as well as to participate in restricted-competition contracts. Currently, four tracts within Staten Island have received Zone designation. Specific neighborhoods within these tracts include parts of Stapleton, Clifton, Concord, West Brighton, Mariners Harbor, and Castleton Corners.

 

Port Authority Assets Help Staten Island Grow

The Port Authority of New York and New Jersey (PA) operates several facilities on Staten Island that are central to the borough's economic development efforts. Port Authority transportation facilities include three bridges that connect Staten Island and New Jersey (the Bayonne Bridge, the Outerbridge Crossing, and the Goethals Bridge) and the Howland Hook Marine Terminal. Additionally, the PA is involved in the operation of the Teleport, the largest satellite communications center in New York. Through June 30, 1999, total PA investment in these facilities has reached almost $500 million, ranging from $59 million at Howland Hook to $125 million for the Goethals Bridge.

Combined eastbound traffic on the The Goethals, Outerbridge, and Bayonne bridges in 1999 amounted to over 31 million vehicles, with 3 million traveling on the Bayonne Bridge, 13 million on the Goethals Bridge, and 15 million on the Outerbridge Crossing. Major construction projects are underway on each of the bridges, with construction on the Goethals nearing completion. Deck rehabilitation is ongoing on the other two bridges, with all work expected to be completed by late 2002.

The marine terminal at Howland Hook is leased by the PA from New York City. It is part of the PA's overall Port of New York and New Jersey, which is primarily concentrated in New Jersey but also includes facilities on the Brooklyn waterfront. Howland Hook consists of berths capable of handling three vessels simultaneously, 147 acres of open area for container storage, and 200,000 square feet of shedded area, which allows the facility to handle up to 425,000 containers annually. Approximately 3,000 people now work at Howland Hook. The PA intends to buy the adjacent Port Ivory site from Proctor & Gamble in order to expand the facilities. As Howland Hook is located within the North Shore Economic Development Zone, businesses operating there are eligible for a variety of tax incentives.

In order to improve access to Howland Hook for deep draft container ships, the Army Corps of Engineers will undertake selected widening and deepening of the Arthur Kill Channel, as well as similar projects affecting the Kill Van Kull, Newark Bay and Elizabeth Channel. The Staten Island Railway is also being rebuilt in order to improve access to Howland Hook and make it a more efficient terminal. When completed, it will connect the terminal to the national rail system at Cranford, New Jersey.

The PA is also responsible for real estate development and management at the Teleport, a joint project among the PA, New York City and the Teleport Communications Group, a private telecommunications service provider. Five office and specialized buildings are located on the 100 acre business park, which also includes a 500 mile regional fiber optic network and a satellite transmission facility. This was the first such facility in the world to link fiber optic networks with satellite transmission facilities, and has become a model for teleport development around the world. The satellite facility is the largest in the New York metropolitan area, and provides radio, television, voice, and data transmissions both in the US and abroad.

Businesses operating in the Teleport are eligible for reduced energy costs, property tax abatements, employee tax credits, and elimination of the sales tax on construction materials. AT&T and Merrill Lynch are the primary tenants. The facility is currently operating at capacity, and plans are being developed to add additional buildings.

 

Development Projects in St. George

St. George is the entry point to Staten Island from Manhattan and the seat of borough government. The Staten Island Ferry Terminal is currently undergoing an $80 million reconstruction, which will include a reconfiguration of walkway and roadway access, new retail and restaurant space, and a waterfront plaza.

Directly northwest of the terminal will be the new home of the Staten Island Yankees, a Single-A minor league affiliate of the New York Yankees. This new 6,500 seat stadium is directly on the waterfront, with home plate facing the towers of lower Manhattan. The Yankees affiliate has a 20 year lease on the stadium, and will cover all maintenance and operating costs, while the City will receive a sliding scale percentage of revenue from advertising and gate receipts. The facility will also be available for at least 20 City-sponsored community-related events.

Just south of the ferry terminal will be the National Lighthouse Museum and the Staten Island Institute of Arts and Sciences Museum, scheduled to be completed in 2002.

A master economic development plan is currently being developed by SIEDC for Bay Street, the main commercial artery connecting the ferry terminal with the Verrazano-Narrows Bridge. It seeks to assess the area's strengths and weaknesses and to recommend infrastructure improvements. Many of the high-tech-ready buildings available through the SI HUB are located along Bay Street near the ferry terminal.

Adjacent to Bay Street is the former Navy Homeport facility. The Homeport facility has been largely vacant for several years and, to the frustration of many, the City's EDC has so far had no success in attracting development proposals that it believes satisfy the criteria it has set for financing and land use design. Borough officials have expressed the hope that the various investments underway in St. George will generate more interest in the Homeport site. EDC has contracted with an architectural firm to assess the site and determine measures that could be taken to make the property more marketable.

 

North Shore Development

Adjacent to the Howland Hook Terminal is a 15-acre former Department of Transportation site in Mariners Harbor now owned by EDC. SIEDC has proposed an industrial park targeted to manufacturing firms requiring over 5,000 square feet of space. SIEDC has completed a survey of the site, which is awaiting EDC approval, and will soon begin the uniform land use review process. The site lies within the economic development zone.

 

West Shore Development

Along the West Shore Expressway lies the 415 acre Staten Island Corporate Park, that includes the Teleport and 3 new class A office buildings. EDC helped create the site in the early 1970s. Currently, a 150-room Hilton Hotel is under development, with an opening date expected in the summer of 2001. At the Teleport, which is fully occupied, there are various private development proposals to expand the facility. The Staten Island Corporate Park also lies within the economic development zone, providing its tenants with additional benefits.

Another new commercial property under development is the 195,000 square foot Southport Plaza. Located near the Teleport, the facility will provide a new manufacturing center for a chocolate factory on the ground floor, while the upper floors will offer high-technology-capable office space.

A 250,000 square foot business, industrial, and office complex called Lucent Business Park has been announced. Located in Richmond Valley, its developers hope to attract research and development companies.

Finally, the Fresh Kills landfill is scheduled to close at the end of 2001. In anticipation of the closure, the City has been scaling back operations at the landfill and has been moving forward with gas recovery and covering operations in the sections where dumping has ceased. Once the entire landfill is capped, State regulations will require environmental monitoring for 30 years. The Staten Island Borough President's Office and various City, State, and Federal agencies have begun a long-term process to determine the future use of the facility. Proposals include wildlife habitats, parkland, and recreational facilities. A final decision concerning the use of the landfill after its closing is still several years away.

 

 


 

 

Appendix A

Population and Migration by Borough

(in 000s)

 

 

Bronx

Brooklyn

Manhattan

Queens

Staten Island

 

 

 

 

 

Population:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1989

1,213.7

2,317.0

1,486.1

1,950.4

377.1

1990

1,203.8

2,300.7

1,487.5

1,951.6

379.0

1991

1,198.7

2,288.7

1,483.6

1,948.7

384.8

1992

1,194.0

2,285.2

1,487.0

1,948.7

389.9

1993

1,196.7

2,286.3

1,497.2

1,954.6

394.3

1994

1,195.5

2,282.5

1,510.1

1,957.8

395.3

1995

1,193.6

2,274.1

1,522.9

1,962.8

396.2

1996

1,191.0

2,266.9

1,532.7

1,971.6

398.4

1997

1,190.8

2,266.2

1,541.4

1,982.6

401.9

1998

1,191.3

2,266.2

1,546.5

1,993.2

406.9

1999

1,194.1

2,269.3

1,551.8

2,000.6

413.3

 

 

 

 

 

 

Average Annual Percent Change in Population:

 

 

 

1989-1998

-0.2%

-0.2%

0.4%

0.3%

0.9%

 

 

 

 

 

 

Total Net Births Less Deaths:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1994

13.0

21.5

6.6

13.9

2.7

1995

11.7

20.3

6.4

13.6

2.6

1996

11.3

19.7

6.3

15.0

2.5

1997

11.4

20.0

6.9

14.8

2.2

1998

11.5

20.2

7.2

15.0

2.4

1999

11.7

20.5

7.4

15.3

2.3

 

 

 

 

 

 

Total Net Domestic Migration:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1994

-28.2

-59.7

-12.0

-34.8

-2.7

1995

-29.9

-62.6

-11.7

-34.7

-3.0

1996

-30.6

-62.2

-15.4

-38.0

-1.6

1997

-27.9

-57.2

-16.3

-38.1

-0.3

1998

-24.0

-51.9

-15.5

-34.1

1.4

1999

-21.8

-48.9

-14.8

-36.6

2.4

 

 

 

 

 

 

Total Net International Migration:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1994

14.9

36.4

19.2

25.7

1.1

1995

16.4

34.2

19.1

27.2

1.4

1996

16.8

35.9

19.6

32.8

1.5

1997

16.0

36.0

18.2

34.3

1.6

1998

12.7

31.1

13.6

29.7

1.4

1999

12.4

29.3

12.8

28.1

1.7

 

Data Source: US Census Bureau

 

 


 

Appendix B

Population by Age Group

 

 

Bronx

Brooklyn

Manhattan

Queens

Staten Island

 

 

 

 

 

1990 Census:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

0-17

335,348

612,499

250,062

413,482

94,682

18-24

143,131

251,930

155,502

203,288

40,697

25-44

376,537

741,202

581,619

652,389

127,115

45-64

210,861

415,275

306,562

398,183

74,569

65+

137,912

279,758

193,791

284,256

41,914

Total, All Ages

1,203,789

2,300,664

1,487,536

1,951,598

378,977

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1998 Estimates:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

0-17

355,594

626,309

285,575

448,819

105,315

18-24

116,122

200,334

132,938

166,266

33,674

25-44

363,173

708,493

575,180

647,786

130,564

45-64

230,993

453,234

362,087

449,700

89,464

65+

129,717

279,572

194,869

286,282

48,106

Total, All Ages

1,195,599

2,267,942

1,550,649

1,998,853

407,123

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1998 Share of Borough Population:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

0-17

29.7%

27.6%

18.4%

22.5%

25.9%

18-24

9.7%

8.8%

8.6%

8.3%

8.3%

25-44

30.4%

31.2%

37.1%

32.4%

32.1%

45-64

19.3%

20.0%

23.4%

22.5%

22.0%

65+

10.8%

12.3%

12.6%

14.3%

11.8%

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Percent Change 1990-1998:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

0-17

6.0%

2.3%

14.2%

8.5%

11.2%

18-24

-18.9%

-20.5%

-14.5%

-18.2%

-17.3%

25-44

-3.5%

-4.4%

-1.1%

-0.7%

2.7%

45-64

9.5%

9.1%

18.1%

12.9%

20.0%

65+

-5.9%

-0.1%

0.6%

0.7%

14.8%

Total, All Ages

-0.7%

-1.4%

4.2%

2.4%

7.4%

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Data Source: US Census Bureau

 


 

Appendix C

Private Sector Employment by Borough

 

 

Bronx

Brooklyn

Manhattan

Queens

Staten Island

 

 

 

 

 

Employment Level (000s):

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1989

178.0

377.6

1,896.4

434.3

64.0

1990

177.5

373.8

1,857.7

429.0

65.0

1991

171.7

360.5

1,734.3

409.0

63.5

1992

170.2

361.7

1,663.0

399.7

62.7

1993

173.2

371.1

1,653.0

397.2

65.3

1994

175.7

373.1

1,675.7

403.1

68.0

1995

178.1

378.4

1,685.7

408.8

70.8

1996

179.5

377.4

1,723.8

416.1

72.1

1997

180.3

380.3

1,768.3

423.8

74.3

1998

181.4

386.4

1,816.1

437.1

76.7

 

 

 

 

 

 

Share of Citywide Employment:

 

 

 

 

1998

6.3%

13.3%

62.7%

15.1%

2.6%

 

 

 

 

 

 

Percent Change:

 

 

 

 

1989

0.4%

1.0%

-0.8%

1.9%

0.7%

1990

-0.3%

-1.0%

-2.0%

-1.2%

1.5%

1991

-3.2%

-3.6%

-6.6%

-4.7%

-2.2%

1992

-0.9%

0.3%

-4.1%

-2.3%

-1.3%

1993

1.8%

2.6%

-0.6%

-0.6%

4.1%

1994

1.4%

0.5%

1.4%

1.5%

4.1%

1995

1.4%

1.4%

0.6%

1.4%

4.1%

1996

0.8%

-0.3%

2.3%

1.8%

1.9%

1997

0.5%

0.8%

2.6%

1.9%

2.9%

1998

0.6%

1.6%

2.7%

3.1%

3.3%

 

 

 

 

 

 

Average Annual Change:

 

 

 

 

1989-1992

-1.5%

-1.4%

-4.3%

-2.7%

-0.7%

1992-1998

1.1%

1.1%

1.5%

1.5%

3.4%

 

 

 

 

 

 

Change in Employment (000s):

 

 

 

1989-1992

-7.8

-15.9

-233.4

-34.6

-1.3

1992-1998

11.2

24.8

153.1

37.4

14.0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Data Source: NYS Department of Labor, ES202 Insured Employment Series

 


 

Appendix D

Labor Force by Place of Residence

 

(thousands of people)

 

 

1997

1998

Change*

1999

Change

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

BRONX

 

 

 

 

 

 

Labor Force

464.3

468.7

0.9%

462.3

-1.4%

 

Employed

410.3

422.0

2.8%

424.3

0.5%

 

Unemployed

54.0

46.7

-13.5%

38.0

-18.5%

 

Unemployment Rate

11.6%

10.0%

-1.7

8.2%

-1.7

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

BROOKLYN

 

 

 

 

 

 

Labor Force

954.1

966.8

1.3%

957.2

-1.0%

 

Employed

851.4

875.6

2.8%

880.3

0.5%

 

Unemployed

102.7

91.2

-11.2%

76.9

-15.7%

 

Unemployment Rate

10.8%

9.4%

-1.3

8.0%

-1.4

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

MANHATTAN

 

 

 

 

 

 

Labor Force

811.5

825.4

1.7%

821.2

-0.5%

 

Employed

748.2

769.5

2.8%

773.6

0.5%

 

Unemployed

63.3

55.9

-11.7%

47.6

-14.9%

 

Unemployment Rate

7.8%

6.8%

-1.0

5.8%

-1.0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

QUEENS

 

 

 

 

 

 

Labor Force

977.5

988.7

1.1%

984.5

-0.4%

 

Employed

894.3

919.7

2.8%

924.7

0.5%

 

Unemployed

83.2

68.9

-17.1%

59.8

-13.3%

 

Unemployment Rate

8.5%

7.0%

-1.5

6.1%

-0.9

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

STATEN ISLAND

 

 

 

 

 

 

Labor Force

193.1

195.7

1.3%

194.6

-0.5%

 

Employed

177.1

182.1

2.8%

183.1

0.5%

 

Unemployed

16.0

13.6

-15.2%

11.6

-15.0%

 

Unemployment Rate

8.3%

6.9%

-1.4

5.9%

-1.0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

NEW YORK CITY

 

 

 

 

 

 

Labor Force

3,400.6

3,445.2

1.3%

3,419.7

-0.7%

 

Employed

3,081.4

3,169.0

2.8%

3,186.0

0.5%

 

Unemployed

319.7

275.8

-13.7%

233.2

-15.4%

 

Unemployment Rate

9.4%

8.0%

-1.4

6.8%

-1.2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

*Change in the Unemployment Rate is defined as a difference; for all other data, change is a percent change.

 

Data Source: NYS Department of Labor

 


 

Appendix E

Staten Island Employment and Wages for 1998

 

 

Employment Level (000s)

Change

1997-98

(percent)

 

Wage Level ($millions)

Change

1997-98

(percent)

Manufacturing

2.4

-1.3

$93.6

-8.6

Durable Goods

0.8

3.9

30.4

2.0

Lumber & Wood

0.1

10.1

1.3

16.7

Furniture & Fixtures

0.1

-27.8

1.0

-35.1

Stone, Clay & Glass

0.1

5.3

8.2

12.8

Primary Metals

- - -

- - -

- - -

- - -

Fabricated Metals

- - -

- - -

- - -

- - -

Industrial & Commercial Machinery

- - -

- - -

- - -

- - -

Electrical Equipment

0.1

-1.7

1.2

-8.5

Transportation Equipment

0.4

10.5

13.8

11.5

Instruments

- - -

- - -

- - -

- - -

Miscellaneous Manufacturing

0.1

13.0

2.5

15.9

Nondurable Goods

1.5

-3.8

63.2

-12.9

Food Products

0.1

33.0

3.2

-5.4

Textile Mill Products

- - -

- - -

- - -

- - -

Apparel

0.4

-15.4

8.9

-15.3

Paper Products

- - -

- - -

- - -

- - -

Printing & Publishing

0.6

-3.0

32.7

-22.0

Chemical Products

0.2

-10.4

8.5

-0.6

Rubber & Plastic Products

- - -

- - -

- - -

- - -

Leather Products

- - -

- - -

- - -

- - -

Construction

5.3

8.9

221.2

17.4

Transportation

6.3

6.6

271.4

15.2

Trade

20.1

2.4

353.7

8.1

Wholesale

1.8

1.9

55.3

3.8

Retail

18.3

2.5

298.4

8.9

Building Material

0.9

15.4

18.4

19.5

General Merchandise

2.4

-0.1

38.3

7.8

Food Stores

3.9

0.5

63.0

3.6

Auto Dealers

1.1

2.6

34.7

8.0

Apparel

1.8

11.2

21.0

13.5

Furniture

0.9

10.4

23.3

20.2

Restaurants

4.7

2.1

54.3

10.7

Miscellaneous Retail

2.7

-3.1

45.4

4.9

FIRE

4.2

3.0

148.4

12.2

Banking

1.7

6.0

50.4

11.2

Nondepository Institutions

0.1

-12.0

4.0

22.4

Securities

0.1

3.5

8.7

0.4

Insurance Carriers

0.5

-4.7

28.6

5.0

Insurance Agents

0.4

-0.0

13.6

16.7

Real Estate, Holding & Investment

1.4

4.3

43.1

19.5


Appendix E (continued)

 

 

Employment Level (000s)

Change

1997-98

(percent)

 

Wage Level ($millions)

Change

1997-98

(percent)

Services

37.6

2.9

$1,128.5

10.5

Hotels

0.1

6.5

2.0

25.2

Personal Services

2.0

6.8

30.3

12.0

Business Services

3.3

7.2

87.7

26.9

Auto Repair

0.7

6.0

15.3

10.0

Miscellaneous Repair

0.3

0.7

10.8

13.3

Motion Pictures

0.4

3.9

4.4

17.4

Amusement Services

0.9

-12.5

13.8

3.4

Health Services

19.0

3.5

730.4

10.1

Legal Services

0.8

10.0

30.6

18.5

Education Services

2.8

-8.0

65.0

6.4

Social Services

4.5

0.5

79.4

2.8

Museums

0.2

3.0

4.3

4.5

Member Organizations

0.8

27.1

9.2

14.3

Engineering and Accounting

1.7

8.1

43.4

5.1

Government

6.5

0.3

274.1

4.1

 

 

 

 

 

Total, All Industries

83.2

3.1

2,509.5

9.7

 

Note: Details may not sum to total due to rounding and suppression of data for industries with few firms or employees.

Data Source: NYS Department of Labor, ES202 Insured Employment Series

 


 

Appendix F

Average Salaries for 1998

 

 

 

Bronx

Brooklyn

Manhattan

Queens

Staten Island

Manufacturing

$29,675

$24,881

$69,755

$31,454

$39,746

Durable Goods

33,723

28,227

76,202

35,208

37,413

Lumber & Wood

49,234

28,075

34,401

29,396

28,517

Furniture & Fixtures

30,387

23,426

36,440

25,863

18,173

Stone, Clay & Glass

49,008

26,305

67,807

35,832

57,070

Primary Metals

34,201

39,543

108,394

37,680

- - -

Fabricated Metals

29,821

29,665

46,297

34,056

- - -

Industrial & Commercial Machinery

35,286

28,980

96,069

34,517

- - -

Electrical Equipment

39,737

36,485

149,243

40,692

20,815

Transportation Equipment

21,919

32,435

87,230

38,208

36,675

Instruments

29,169

37,642

123,240

42,213

- - -

Miscellaneous Manufacturing

33,489

22,687

34,624

31,471

38,826

Nondurable Goods

26,446

23,467

68,594

28,800

40,974

Food Products

31,431

32,895

63,845

36,657

21,912

Textile Mill Products

30,006

18,335

80,599

25,384

- - -

Apparel

16,133

14,433

36,853

21,600

21,993

Paper Products

31,425

28,502

51,768

37,717

- - -

Printing & Publishing

31,222

32,553

77,775

35,326

54,912

Chemical Products

31,267

42,956

144,809

39,084

43,726

Rubber & Plastic Products

21,103

25,665

42,535

24,878

- - -

Leather Products

22,423

23,802

44,504

21,384

- - -

Construction

40,581

39,121

55,379

44,480

41,426

Transportation

43,190

38,761

63,007

41,241

43,045

Trade

23,311

22,127

41,463

24,105

17,606

Wholesale

38,758

32,292

70,359

40,208

30,278

Retail

17,290

17,703

25,944

18,111

16,339

Building Materials

25,599

24,006

31,504

24,071

20,689

General Merchandise

14,602

17,738

29,773

15,642

16,188

Food Stores

14,951

16,348

18,551

16,220

16,369

Auto Dealers

26,186

31,854

51,689

32,985

32,563

Apparel

15,313

13,814

31,748

14,480

11,800

Furniture

21,595

20,962

29,640

24,551

25,719

Restaurants

13,024

13,030

20,433

14,561

11,524

Miscellaneous Retail

25,505

21,939

33,892

21,080

16,846

FIRE

27,686

39,711

128,544

40,357

35,054

Banking

29,532

46,440

102,575

46,577

28,715

Nondepository Institutions

42,833

59,089

106,230

75,836

44,745

Securities

54,203

80,522

196,268

89,843

62,993

Insurance Carriers

61,322

55,789

74,492

46,308

58,970

Insurance Agents

22,944

27,152

82,003

30,683

35,808

Real Estate, Holding & Investment

26,065

27,185

69,655

30,809

31,112


Appendix F (continued)

 

 

Bronx

 

 

Brooklyn

 

 

Manhattan

 

 

Queens

Staten Island

Services

$31,002

$26,712

$48,952

$28,891

$30,043

Hotels

18,926

24,392

35,597

27,104

23,553

Personal Services

17,247

17,080

23,373

16,934

15,437

Business Services

21,685

23,489

50,593

23,334

26,310

Auto Repair

18,943

19,999

23,592

22,421

20,741

Miscellaneous Repair

29,843

29,527

32,929

34,459

33,373

Motion Pictures

11,807

18,931

56,716

21,927

11,938

Amusement Services

96,549

17,364

45,411

33,437

15,849

Health Services

37,752

34,602

44,422

37,794

38,437

Legal Services

41,302

37,938

76,416

35,849

37,370

Education Services

31,150

24,071

36,694

26,791

23,636

Social Services

20,219

19,473

26,294

19,341

17,678

Museums

26,416

28,675

34,668

22,236

18,971

Member Organizations

16,439

16,666

38,645

21,858

12,249

Engineering and Accounting

26,781

36,169

71,392

33,871

24,898

Government

39,682

45,129

42,238

42,261

42,393

 

 

 

 

 

 

Private Sector

30,008

27,645

68,074

31,904

29,128

 

 

 

 

 

 

Total, All Industries

31,131

28,987

62,970

32,564

30,159

 

Data Source: NYS Department of Labor, ES202 Insured Employment Series

 


 

Appendix G

Average Salaries for Jobs Lost or Gained in the Private Sector in 1998

 

 

 

1998

Average Salary

1998

Job

Change

 

Bronx

 

 

 

Top Industries Adding Jobs

 

 

 

Public Utilities

$ 62,960

550

 

Construction

40,581

380

 

Miscellaneous Retail

25,205

370

 

Restaurants

13,024

360

 

Business Services

21,685

280

 

Apparel - Retail

15,313

240

 

Social Services

20,219

160

 

Communications

48,171

150

 

Nondurable Goods -Wholesale

40,893

150

 

Membership Organizations

16,439

130

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Top Industries Losing Jobs

 

 

 

Health Services

$ 37,752

-820

 

Food Stores

14,951

-310

 

General Merchandise

14,602

-200

 

Rubber & Plastic Products - Manufacturing

21,103

-170

 

Apparel - Manufacturing

16,133

-130

 

Printing & Publishing - Manufacturing

31,222

-110

 

Building Materials - Retail

25,599

-100

 

Motor Freight

33,858

-100

 

Furniture - Retail

21,595

-90

 

Food Products - Manufacturing

31,431

-80

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Average Salary of All Industries Adding Jobs

$ 32,789

3,630

 

Average Salary of All Industries Losing Jobs

27,993

-2,570

 

Average Salary of All Private Industries

30,008

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


 

Appendix G (continued)

 

 

 

1998

Average Salary

1998

Job

Change

 

Brooklyn

 

 

 

Top Industries Adding Jobs

 

 

 

Social Services

$ 19,473

1,890

 

Health Services

34,602

1,750

 

Construction

39,121

1,580

 

Apparel - Retail

13,814

1,020

 

Educational Services

24,071

820

 

Local & Suburban Transportation

22,178

630

 

Restaurants

13,030

420

 

Building Materials - Retail

24,006

370

 

Real Estate, Holding & Investment Companies

27,185

300

 

Public Utilities

64,286

280

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Top Industries Losing Jobs

 

 

 

Business Services

$ 23,489

-1,360

 

Apparel - Manufacturing

14,433

-390

 

Textile Mills Products - Manufacturing

18,335

-310

 

Miscellaneous Manufacturing

22,687

-290

 

Nondurable Goods - Wholesale

30,462

-270

 

General Merchandise

17,738

-210

 

Food Products - Manufacturing

32,895

-180

 

Rubber & Plastic Products - Manufacturing

25,665

-140

 

Chemical Products - Manufacturing

42,956

-140

 

Depository Institutions

46,440

-120

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Average Salary of All Industries Adding Jobs

$ 28,563

11,010

 

Average Salary of All Industries Losing Jobs

24,332

-4,840

 

Average Salary of All Private Industries

27,645

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


 

Appendix G (continued)

 

 

 

1998

Average Salary

1998

Job

Change

 

Manhattan

 

 

 

Top Industries Adding Jobs

 

 

 

Business Services

$ 50,593

17,290

 

Securities

196,268

8,940

 

Engineering , Accounting & Management

71,392

7,510

 

Restaurants

20,433

4,380

 

Legal Services

76,416

3,360

 

Construction

55,379

3,140

 

Real Estate, Holding & Investment Companies

69,655

2,690

 

Apparel - Retail

31,748

2,430

 

Miscellaneous Retail

33,892

2,420

 

Health Services

44,422

2,360

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Top Industries Losing Jobs

 

 

 

Public Utilities

$ 72,092

-4,080

 

Apparel - Manufacturing

36,853

-3,040

 

Depository Institutions

102,575

-2,130

 

General Merchandise

29,773

-1,420

 

Durable Goods - Wholesale

72,065

-940

 

Amusement & Recreation

45,411

-670

 

Communications

82,748

-540

 

Motor Freight

23,136

-420

 

Insurance Carriers

74,492

-420

 

Water Transportation

60,939

-370

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Average Salary of All Industries Adding Jobs

$ 71,677

64,630

 

Average Salary of All Industries Losing Jobs

62,617

-16,780

 

Average Salary of All Private Industries

68,074

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


 

Appendix G (continued)

 

 

 

1998

Average Salary

1998

Job

Change

 

Queens

 

 

 

Top Industries Adding Jobs

 

 

 

Construction

$ 44,480

2,530

 

Business Services

23,334

2,390

 

Health Services

37,794

2,030

 

Public Utilities

67,779

1,230

 

Social Services

19,341

1,140

 

Local & Suburban Transportation

31,060

750

 

Educational Services

26,791

710

 

Air Transportation

41,196

550

 

Restaurants

14,561

470

 

Communications

53,780

370

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Top Industries Losing Jobs

 

 

 

General Merchandise

$ 15,642

-350

 

Industrial & Commercial Machinery

34,517

-260

 

Depository Institutions

46,577

-220

 

Textile Mills Products

25,384

-200

 

Miscellaneous Repair

34,459

-200

 

Miscellaneous Manufacturing

31,471

-180

 

Engineering, Accounting & Management

33,871

-120

 

Paper Products - Manufacturing

37,717

-120

 

Insurance Carriers

46,308

-100

 

Chemical Products - Manufacturing

39,084

-90

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Average Salary of All Industries Adding Jobs

$ 35,133

15,840

 

Average Salary of All Industries Losing Jobs

28,833

-2,600

 

Average Salary of All Private Industries

31,904

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


 

Appendix G (continued)

 

 

 

1998

Average Salary

1998

Job

Change

 

Staten Island

 

 

 

Top Industries Adding Jobs

 

 

 

Health Services

$ 38,437

640

 

Construction

41,426

440

 

Business Services

26,310

220

 

Apparel - Retail

11,800

180

 

Communications

51,888

160

 

Membership Organizations

12,249

160

 

Engineering, Accounting & Management

24,898

130

 

Personal Services

15,437

120

 

Building Materials - Retail

20,689

120

 

Motor Freight

29,035

110

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Top Industries Losing Jobs

 

 

 

Educational Services

$ 23,636

-240

 

Amusement & Recreation

15,849

-120

 

Miscellaneous Retail

16,846

-90

 

Apparel Manufacturing

21,993

-70

 

Local & Suburban Transportation

21,655

-40

 

Insurance Carriers

58,970

-20

 

Durable Goods - Wholesale

29,502

-20

 

Chemical Products - Manufacturing

43,726

-20

 

Furniture & Fixtures - Manufacturing

18,173

-20

 

Printing & Publishing - Manufacturing

54,912

-20

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Average Salary of All Industries Adding Jobs

$ 31,738

3,200

 

Average Salary of All Industries Losing Jobs

24,137

-710

 

Average Salary of All Private Industries

29,128

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Data Source: NYS Department of Labor, ES202 Insured Employment Series

 


 

Appendix H

Personal Income by Borough

 

 

 

Bronx

Brooklyn

Manhattan

Queens

Staten Island

 

 

 

 

 

Total Personal Income ($millions):

 

 

 

 

1994

20,842.0

46,849.7

83,391.8

47,267.5

10,256.7

1995

21,546.5

49,013.3

90,807.3

49,660.2

10,872.0

1996

22,220.0

51,122.4

100,284.1

51,541.9

11,450.2

1997

22,858.7

52,720.6

103,841.9

53,481.8

12,150.5

1998

23,637.0

54,561.0

111,648.0

56,656.2

12,690.1

 

 

 

 

 

 

Percent Change:

 

 

 

 

1995

3.4%

4.6%

8.9%

5.1%

6.0%

1996

3.1%

4.3%

10.4%

3.8%

5.3%

1997

2.9%

3.1%

3.6%

3.8%

6.1%

1998

3.4%

3.5%

7.5%

5.9%

4.4%

 

 

 

 

 

 

Net Earnings ($millions):

 

 

 

 

1994

11,816.9

28,444.0

57,066.3

29,015.4

6,731.0

1995

11,944.6

29,259.6

62,355.4

29,880.2

6,995.9

1996

12,303.2

30,671.2

70,616.3

30,972.7

7,371.3

1997

12,858.0

32,076.9

74,489.8

32,652.3

7,812.8

1998

13,351.0

33,305.0

81,207.1

35,241.4

8,205.8

 

 

 

 

 

 

Dividends, Interest, and Rent ($millions):

 

 

 

1994

2,342.7

5,788.8

17,468.4

7,225.3

1,345.8

1995

2,438.5

6,221.6

19,003.1

7,998.0

1,518.6

1996

2,445.6

6,364.4

19,775.1

8,315.1

1,596.2

1997

2,580.0

6,722.1

19,347.4

8,594.1

1,784.2

1998

2,675.1

6,958.9

20,144.7

8,899.3

1,848.0

 

 

 

 

 

 

Transfer Payments ($millions):

 

 

 

 

1994

6,682.4

12,616.9

8,857.1

11,026.9

2,179.9

1995

7,163.3

13,532.1

9,448.1

11,782.0

2,357.5

1996

7,471.2

14,086.8

9,892.7

12,254.1

2,482.7

1997

7,420.6

13,921.5

10,004.7

12,235.4

2,553.5

1998

7,611.0

14.297.1

10,296.2

12,515.5

2,636.4

 

 

 

 

 

 

Per Capita Personal Income:

 

 

 

 

1994

17,433

20,525

55,222

24,144

25,944

1995

18,052

21,553

59,627

25,301

27,443

1996

18,655

22,551

65,430

26,143

28,744

1997

19,195

23,264

67,368

26,976

30,236

1998

19,841

24,076

72,194

28,425

31,187

 

Data Source: US Department of Commerce, Bureau of Economic Analysis

 


 

Appendix I

Public Assistance in New York City

 

 

Bronx

Brooklyn

Manhattan

Queens

Staten Island

 

 

 

 

 

Persons Receiving Public Assistance (000s):

 

 

 

FY:

 

 

 

 

 

1990

241.6

314.7

183.9

98.5

15.8

1991

264.2

334.5

201.4

118.0

18.7

1992

273.3

364.5

211.4

130.5

20.0

1993

296.2

390.3

219.7

159.7

23.1

1994

310.3

408.4

226.5

171.4

24.0

1995

307.9

400.9

216.7

169.4

24.5

1996

282.2

362.9

191.5

151.1

20.2

1997

246.4

316.9

167.2

132.0

17.6

1998

237.0

273.8

128.6

106.6

17.3

1999

216.1

239.7

111.7

89.3

15.0

 

 

 

 

 

 

Percent Change:

 

 

 

 

FY:

 

 

 

 

 

1991

9.4%

6.3%

9.5%

19.8%

18.4%

1992

3.4%

9.0%

5.0%

10.6%

7.0%

1993

8.4%

7.1%

3.9%

22.4%

15.5%

1994

4.8%

4.6%

3.1%

7.3%

3.9%

1995

-0.8%

-1.8%

-4.3%

-1.2%

2.1%

1996

-8.3%

-9.5%

-11.6%

-10.8%

-17.6%

1997

-12.7%

-12.7%

-12.7%

-12.6%

-12.9%

1998

-3.8%

-13.6%

-23.1%

-19.2%

-1.7%

1999

-8.8%

-12.5%

-13.1%

-16.2%

-13.3%

 

 

 

 

 

 

1994-1999

-30.4%

-41.3%

-50.7%

-47.9%

-37.5%

 

 

 

 

 

 

Share of City:

 

 

 

 

FY:

 

 

 

 

 

1990

28.3%

36.8%

21.5%

11.5%

1.8%

1991

28.2%

35.7%

21.5%

12.6%

2.0%

1992

27.3%

36.5%

21.1%

13.1%

2.0%

1993

27.2%

35.8%

20.2%

14.7%

2.1%

1994

27.2%

35.8%

19.9%

15.0%

2.1%

1995

27.5%

35.8%

19.4%

15.1%

2.2%

1996

28.0%

36.0%

19.0%

15.0%

2.0%

1997

28.0%

36.0%

19.0%

15.0%

2.0%

1998

31.0%

35.9%

16.8%

14.0%

2.3%

1999

32.2%

35.7%

16.6%

13.3%

2.2%

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Data Source: Mayor's Management Report

 

Appendix J

Reported Crime in New York City

 

Bronx:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Murder

Rape

Robbery

Assault

Burglary

Larceny

M.V. Theft

Total

1990

651

644

17,862

14,462

18,988

28,997

22,966

104,570

1991

552

598

18,055

14,281

18,457

27,350

20,582

99,875

1992

547

566

16,451

13,469

17,688

25,979

17,727

92,427

1993

512

606

16,385

13,728

18,763

26,239

15,656

91,889

1994

393

546

13,985

12,926

16,438

25,399

14,607

84,294

1995

302

570

11,585

12,257

13,981

23,799

11,091

73,585

1996

248

530

10,011

9,782

11,347

21,822

9,788

63,518

1997

195

538

9,049

9,800

9,514

20,226

8,186

57,508

1998

170

533

7,658

10,033

8,187

18,495

7,303

52,379

1998 Share

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

of City

26.9%

26.1%

19.5%

22.9%

17.7%

12.6%

16.6%

16.2%

Change

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1990-98

-73.9%

-17.2%

-57.1%

-30.6%

-56.9%

-36.2%

-68.2%

-49.9%

1998 Crimes per

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

100 People

0.01

0.04

0.64

0.84

0.68

1.55

0.61

4.38

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Brooklyn:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Murder

Rape

Robbery

Assault

Burglary

Larceny

M.V. Theft

Total

1990

759

1,154

36,341

24,828

39,041

54,827

45,054

202,004

1991

786

1,039

34,918

24,074

36,004

50,983

43,458

191,262

1992

652

1,065

32,458

22,507

32,561

47,996

39,460

176,699

1993

718

1,046

30,973

22,194

30,659

50,631

33,015

169,236

1994

546

1,007

25,504

21,155

26,427

45,909

27,830

148,378

1995

382

901

20,793

18,201

21,874

41,011

21,632

124,794

1996

340

842

17,060

16,553

18,796

36,240

16,825

106,656

1997

277

743

15,612

16,071

16,994

37,139

14,624

101,460

1998

237

789

14,137

15,960

15,054

37,282

12,973

96,432

1998 Share

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

of City

37.4%

38.6%

35.9%

36.4%

32.6%

25.4%

29.4%

29.8%

Change

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1990-98

-68.8%

-31.6%

-61.1%

-35.7%

-61.4%

-32.0%

-71.2%

-52.3%

1998 Crimes per

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

100 People

0.01

0.03

0.62

0.70

0.66

1.64

0.57

4.25

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Manhattan:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Murder

Rape

Robbery

Assault

Burglary

Larceny

M.V. Theft

Total

1990

498

689

26,907

16,212

29,015

121,989

21,572

216,882

1991

483

628

24,778

15,250

26,075

121,309

19,829

208,352

1992

417

601

21,852

14,858

24,775

107,161

17,515

187,179

1993

418

619

20,269

14,163

22,520

98,329

15,684

172,002

1994

320

531

17,387

13,622

19,968

85,602

13,003

150,433

1995

241

431

13,366

11,282

16,750

71,594

10,022

123,686

1996

203

462

11,292

10,030

13,370

62,621

8,637

106,615

1997

150

405

10,055

9,562

11,030

61,722

6,760

99,684

1998

104

323

8,846

8,787

9,631

56,343

5,716

89,750

1998 Share

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

of City

16.4%

15.8%

22.5%

20.0%

20.9%

38.3%

13.0%

27.8%

Change

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1990-98

-79.1%

-53.1%

-67.1%

-45.8%

-66.8%

-53.8%

-73.5%

-58.6%

1998 Crimes per

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

100 People

0.01

0.02

0.57

0.57

0.62

3.63

0.37

5.79


Appendix J (continued)

 

Queens:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Murder

Rape

Robbery

Assault

Burglary

Larceny

M.V. Theft

Total

1990

308

559

18,135

11,442

29,273

54,898

50,300

164,915

1991

303

562

19,616

11,340

27,912

49,837

49,987

159,557

1992

352

530

19,093

10,841

25,185

48,600

47,133

151,734

1993

273

489

16,971

10,832

23,843

53,464

43,144

149,016

1994

268

520

14,394

10,229

22,302

45,875

35,462

129,050

1995

226

417

12,448

8,991

18,951

41,143

26,568

108,744

1996

164

453

10,378

7,789

15,887

36,766

22,383

93,820

1997

132

416

9,033

8,256

14,886

33,107

20,068

85,898

1998

110

358

8,168

7,847

12,034

30,791

16,265

75,573

1998 Share

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

of City

17.4%

17.5%

20.8%

17.9%

26.1%

20.9%

36.9%

23.4%

Change

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1990-98

-64.3%

-36.0%

-55.0%

-31.4%

-58.9%

-43.9%

-67.7%

-54.2%

1998 Crimes per

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

100 People

0.01

0.02

0.41

0.39

0.60

1.54

0.81

3.78

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Staten Island:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Murder

Rape

Robbery

Assault

Burglary

Larceny

M.V. Theft

Total

1990

29

80

1,035

1,946

3,620

7,909

7,231

21,850

1991

30

65

1,145

1,887

3,567

6,994

6,121

19,809

1992

27

53

1,385

1,854

3,267

6,433

5,124

18,143

1993

25

58

1,403

1,861

3,422

6,469

4,965

18,203

1994

34

62

1,270

1,823

3,235

7,023

4,519

17,966

1995

26

55

1,088

1,591

2,333

5,490

3,366

13,949

1996

28

45

929

1,520

1,870

4,797

2,757

11,946

1997

16

55

958

1,540

1,675

4,845

2,254

11,343

1998

12

43

548

1,251

1,279

4,126

1,799

9,058

1998 Share

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

of City

1.9%

2.1%

1.4%

2.9%

2.8%

2.8%

4.1%

2.8%

Change

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1990-98

-58.6%

-46.3%

-47.1%

-35.7%

-64.7%

-47.8%

-75.1%

-58.5%

1998 Crimes per