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NYS Comptroller


The Academy for New York State's Local Officials

Protecting the Public’s Interest: A Tutorial on Local Government Ethics and Transparency in New York State

Module 1 - Conflict of Interest of Municipal Officers and Employees

Who is Subject to Article 18?

General Municipal Law Article 18 applies to the officers and employees of every “municipality.” The term “municipality” is defined very broadly and includes most local government entities, such as:

  • Counties, cities, towns, and villages (excluding New York City)
  • School districts and BOCES (excluding the New York City School District)
  • District corporations (e.g., fire districts)
  • Consolidated health districts
  • County vocational education and extension boards
  • Public libraries
  • Industrial development agencies
  • Urban renewal agencies
  • County or town improvement districts, certain joint water works systems, and other entities established for performing or financing public improvements or services.

The law also addresses who is a “municipal officer or employee.” A municipal officer or employee:

  • Can be either paid or unpaid
  • Includes members of administrative boards, commissions, and agencies
  • In counties, includes any officer or employee paid from county funds
  • Includes fire chiefs or assistant fire chiefs, but DOES NOT apply to volunteer firefighters or civil defense volunteers who are not otherwise officers or employees of the municipality.

Let's hear what Mark Stevens has to say about who is subject to Article 18.

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